Category Archives: European projects

Electric Vehicles and charging stations: best practices from Europe and Italy

Electric Vehicles and charging stations: best practices form Europe and Italy. Changing the behavior for a cleaner future

The 2nd Regional Stakeholder Meeting conference of EV Energy, hosted by Partner EUR S.p.A in its facilities in Rome last 19th of October 2017, involved experts and key stakeholders from Greenit Amsterdam region, Flevoland Province, Stockholm County Council, Chamber of Commerce of Barcelona, Kaunas University of Technology and the Municipalities Association of Anci Lazio, including representatives of ENEL S.p.A., GLS Italy, UMPI and the Mobility Service Agency of the City of Rome.

They all agreed that many cities and regions are setting tougher environmental goals than national governments to limit air pollution and to achieve the goals of the 2015 Paris climate agreement to curb greenhouse gas emissions.

Zero emissions areas could mean more parks, pedestrian areas or roads where only electric powered vehicles could enter to make cities more attractive places to live. On this topics, Mariarosaria Marziali in charge of communication by Anci Lazio interviewed some attendees.

Marco Ghetti from UMPI Italian private company declared that “unfortunately e-infrastructures are not ready yet in our cities but existing infrastructures and assets can be exploited and turned into a e-mobility service network for EVs, starting from public lighting. “This is what UMPI can do and for sure in the next 15 years big part of the mobility transition will be completed”.

Donatas_Černiauskas from a Lithuanian ESCO company said that his ESCO is signing agreements with city authorities to develop charging system for EVs. However, there is still a relevant criticism as the National governments do not have yet target and goals for EVs and we don’t know yet who can manage the process of the mobility transition.

More optimistic was Cristian Bardaji from the Chamber of Commerce of Catalunia because a Strategic Plan 2016-2019 for the development of charging infrastructure for EVs has been implemented in Catalunia. With a budget of € 6 Million in 3 years Catalunia is implementing 100 charging stations to fast roads, 400 semi-fast charging stations and 25.000 charging points linked. Therefore, there are very good news from Catalunia. Cristian Bardaji explained that this choice of the Region is due to the fact that citizens ask for clean air.

Enrico Tagliaferri Manager of the Italian enterprise Share’ngo for Rome is optimistic as well about the future of the electric mobility in Italy. The plan of Share’ngo free-floating car sharing service is to introduce 2.000 new EVs in Milan and Rome. Share’ngo wants to create its own charging stations very soon, in order to quickly encounter the needs of the consumers.

Alberto Piglia, Head ofe- Mobility of Global Business Line e-Solutions for Enel strongly has believed in electric mobility since 2008. Enel implemented the first charging stations in Pisa in 2009. Today it is even possible to drive from Rome to Milan, thanks to the new fast charging stations installed in the highway last September. The investment plan of Enel is to install 7.000 new fast charging stations in Italy very soon. In addition, Enel to create a digital intelligence in order to manage the “batteries with wheels” in the best way to balance the power.

Michael Erman, Regional planner at County Council Stockholm, is optimistic as well. Stockholm is one of the most ambitious cities in EU to become one of the world’s leading clean vehicle cities by 2030. To achieve this, the City is developing e-infrastructures. 500 charging points on-street will be installed by 2020. Michael declared that the first objective must remain “local transport to be strengthened” while the second one is to allow people to buy EVs instead of polluting cars. But the EVs must be less expensive! An ongoing study in Sweden is the electrification of the public fleets (buses) that implies the implementation of charging facilities in all the

country. Michael concluded by saying that “Public transport and IT are very important in the context of the mobility transition”.

Remarkable is the “self-experimentation” of Hugo Niesing who is the designer, operator, subject, analyst, user and reporter of the experiment. From 2013 onward Hugo Niesing has successfully experimented a smart energy management in his house, producing and consuming energy, together with energy storage in an EV. He installed a 30m2 of solar panels, attaching an EV with available battery capacity of 10Kwh. Prior to the V2H installation and only with the aid of solar panels, 26% of the energy instantly consumed by the household came directly from this renewable energy source. But with the addition of the EV in the energy system, this self-sufficiency increased to 60%. This experiment paves the way for large scale adoption of renewable energies in urban environments. It is in fact in progress in a neighborhood of Amsterdam: the EVs act as energy storage.

Therefore, Hugo Niesing is completely right to be very optimistic regarding the mobility transition. It would be enough to follow his example.

Mariarosaria Marziali

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Europe’s Urban Energy-Mobility Transition Demonstration

Europe’s Urban Energy-Mobility Transition Demonstration, upscaling & uptake in city-planning, how to achieve adequate policy measures and large-scale implementation.

European cities are moving massively into electric mobility, especially electric vehicles, but also buses, freight, water transport bikes mopeds etc. This is one way to create a healthier city, besides that renewable energy in the city is also growing rapidly, as this is the most viable clean source of energy in the city area.

This session is about the combination of Electric Mobility and renewables, facilitated by ICT. The 4 participating projects are all involved in various initiatives at European level, demonstrating how these two sectors can enforce instead of blocking each other.

Both of these technologies are reaching a market matureness, although we see governments struggling with the charging infrastructure development, organisation and financing.

The largest challenge observed in the last 5 years is how to arrange their integration at a larger scale in the city. Growth in solar renewable energy in the city creates an energy production peak between 10 and 16 hours, the overall energy demand peaks of a city are between 7-9 in the morning and 17-20 in the afternoon/evening.

Now we already observe the impact of these mismatches in different cities, not being able to electrify their bus fleet or limiting the EV charging area or intensity. Also the electricity grid faces problems in not so-well connected areas, having to be shut down during peak periods due to grid capacity constraints. On top of this we observe a rapid growth in electricity instead of gas or other fossil fuel in (North West) Europe. These problems will aggravate rapidly if we do not act now and invest in our future, especially zero emission mobility, clean energy, smart storage (in EVs and 2nd life batteries) flexible energy usage. Europe cannot afford it to dimension our electricity grids on peak moments that are occurring a couple of hours during the day during a couple of months….

I. European activities on different policy moments

Technology experiences Resourcefully demonstrated in a home-experiment how you can more than double the energy autonomy by smart energy storage in electric vehicles. This approach and philosophy is now further put into practice in the Smart clean Energy and Electric Vehicles 4 the City (SEEV4-City) project with 6 pilots all about the co-operation between renewables and electric mobility through different experiments. Varying from a single home with solar energy, EV mobility and a small storage unit to larger organisations, both public and private, it includes Europe’s largest EV charging garage (100 EVs) in Oslo and the innovative energy services for the clean balancing of the national grid with 2nd life batteries in the Amsterdam Johan Cruijff ArenA.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Towards upscaling and replication, the CleanMobilEnergy project demonstrates the upscaling to neighbourhoods and more complex situations, with multiple energy sources storage and consumption, steered by one (to be developed transnationally) energy management system.

Planning: The next step in the policy cycle demonstrates the need for proper embedding into municipality planning, this is realised in the Simpla project and in this sequence the next phase in the cycle addresses how good policies and experiences at different levels are required.

EV ENERGY is about finding adequate policies and good experiences, now still too fragmented, in The Netherlands charging infrastructure is booming, while Norway has the best EV incentives and policy on local renewables vary

strong among the EU states.

II. Next steps to make this work at large

In order to reach a more visible impact and integration with the mobility sector as a whole, large demonstration is required, where all mobility practitioners participate, including large distance mobility assets, such as trains metro, busses for the intercity connections between the urban hubs, participating in Europe’s mobility-energy exchange transition..

Bottom line, technically & organisationally we are perfect able to create a transition path in Europe, but this requires large scale visible, well-functioning demonstrations, now here we need involvement of all actors, the market, good regulations, brave politicians at local and regional level, and financial support. The possibility for such a scaled-up experiment in Europe would really be a market changer.

This will not emerge automatically, the mobility sector has taken up the challenge and requires limited support in this process, but the grid operators (DSO’s), the relevant build-environment actors (housing companies, real estate agencies etc.) the integrators (between mobility – energy – storage), working on:

1.Detailed forecast 2.Good real-time monitoring 3. Well determined smart interventions and the renewable sector in the city do need this.

On 5th June, in the framework of the Sustainable Energy Week will be host the event Demonstration, upscaling & uptake in city-planning, how to achieve adequate policy measures and large-scale implementation Moderator: Hugo Niesing, as you can see in the below Agenda.

 

 

THE ENERGY TRANSITION: NEW DIALOGUES BETWEEN THE CITY OF ROME & LOCAL STAKEHOLDERS

 

The City of Rome is strongly involving stakeholders in shaping the city’s future, particularly, regarding the energy transition.

In fact, stakeholders and organisations will be very soon involved in key strategic decision-making to help the City administration of Rome to install infrastructures for charging electric vehicles.

On the other side, it will be easier for the local stakeholders wishing to install electric infrastructures in Rome. This because the City of Rome will renounce to request them the taxes regarding the “occupation of public land” as well as the building permit.

In addition, The City Administration decided to increase the possibility of commercial surface inside the areas of electric charging distributors. This opportunity will repay the investment of the stakeholders on the electric charging points.

But there’s more: an App will be also created in which citizens can propose to the Local Authority the areas of the city where to install electric infrastructures. Then, the City Administration will check the availability of the areas to be equipped with electric charging stations.

The City Assembly Resolution 92/2017 containing the Rome’s Plan of Electric Mobility 2017-2020 was in fact approved last 19 of April 2018.

The Resolution regards the “Regulations for the construction and management of public access systems to be used exclusively for the recharging of vehicles powered by electricity”.

The Rome’s City Councilor for Mobility, Linda Meleo, explained during the City Assembly that the Plan is an important act, because it introduces the first Electric Mobility Plan which defines addresses on what and how electric mobility must be implemented. In addition, it defines the new horizontal and vertical signage linked to the stalls for charging electric vehicles and introduces a framework of rules for the installation of electric infrastructures in the city.

The Plan aims to a minimum target that is to provide the capital city with at least 700 electric charging points, distributed in a capillary way also in the most peripheral areas, by 2020. Through this Plan, Rome intends to achieve more ambitious objectives in order to become an attractive pole of electric mobility. Six macro areas have been identified, going from the city centre to the peri-urban areas, in order to ensure the installation of more electric charging points: from the service stations of the “GRA”, the Rome’s ring road, to the ancient Aurelian Walls, in order to meet the needs of citizens, so as to allow citizens to recharge their own vehicle wherever they are.

The regulations for the implementation of the electric infrastructures in Rome establish, as follows:

• Subjects entitled to submit an application for the implementation of charging electric points

• Technical constraints for the applications

• Technical documentation and building permit procedures

• Duration of the building permit and guarantees

• Technical characteristics of the electric infrastructures

• Stall signaling

• Management, information and integration constraints; monitoring and penalties

• Exemption from building permit charges

• Transitional rules for the managers of the charging stations activated before the entry into force of the Regulation

This Regulation fits perfectly with the actions undertaken by EV ENERGY project, such as the meetings with stakeholders carried out during 2017-2018.

Claudio Bordi

Stakeholder meeting in February in Rome on Energy transition

Climate change and the resulting consequences are among the biggest challenges of our times. Mitigation and adaptation are increasingly becoming priorities for the local governments of the Lazio region. This is the reason why Anci Lazio, the Lazio Region Association of Cities and Municipalities, is actively promoting the transition to more sustainable practices, through the implementation of diverse EU funded projects under the European Regional Development Fund, such as EV Energy [1], Regio-Mob [2] and Local4Green[3]. These projects are showing that the transition is technically achievable and economically feasible. The last Stakeholder meeting that took place in Rome last January 12th, 2018, delved into the current status of Lazio’s policy environment, with a particular interest in initiatives aiming to expand the Lazio’s renewable energy production and use. The main goal of Anci Lazio was to raise awareness, understanding between stakeholders and finally to catalyse action[4].

From the analysis conducted by Anci Lazio the way energy needs in Lazio region are being met is changing rapidly. These changes are in response to new opportunities – such as renewable energy and smart technologies to reduce emissions and extend energy access. Just think of the development of the private sector in the field of electric car sharing and e-bike sharing in Rome and in the Lazio region, which implies new needs for different forms of energy supply.

The traditional centralized model of linear power generation and delivery through limited market or monopoly conditions is going to give way to a more diverse, dynamic and complex system with multiple actors and multi-layered energy, information and money flows. Such new more dynamic system is the so-called Distributed Energy Systems (DES) which can deliver significant economic, social and environmental co-benefits through better system resilience and efficiency, including lower cost grid balancing, reduced greenhouse gas emissions and affordable extension of grids to unconnected communities.

Energy infrastructure in Italy is ageing and requires significant investment to replace and repair. A crucial issue is, therefore, the need of new policy goals aimed at the modernization of the e-infrastructure networks together with the e-storage, as shown in the good practices identified by the partnership of the Ev Energy project.

What emerges from these good practices is that EU countries have set targets for electric vehicles (EVs) development in recent years and are  employing more and more a number of policies to achieve environmental objectives and alleviate the energy pressure, as EVs have prominent advantages for reducing CO2 emissions and alleviating the dependence on fossil fuel consumption in the transport sector.

In the same way, Lazio region needs more policies, such as financial incentives, technology support and charging infrastructure, to promote broader range use of EVs.

Apart from monetary incentives such as tax credits or direct subsidies, there exist other measures that could boost EV sales, or at least, could clear some obstacles out of the way that prevent potential EV buyers from a purchase. These include the improvement of the charging infrastructure, road-tax exemptions, and traffic regulations such as the free use of bus lanes or parking areas.

Therefore, policy measures are strongly and urgently needed in Lazio region to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and promote the acceptance of EVs.

 

To follow the EV Energy project:

https://www.interregeurope.eu/evenergy/

 

Claudio BORDI

 

[1] EV-ENERGY project runs from 1 January 2017 to 30 June 2021 under Interreg Europe Programme. The project aims to pave the way for a transition from fossil driven energy towards fair priced, decarbonised, clean and integrated resources and mobility systems in urban areas.

 

[2] REGIO-MOB project runs from 1 April 2016 to 31 March 2020 under Interreg Europe Programme. REGIO-MOB partners expect to contribute to the consolidation of sustainable mobility in their regions by improving their policies performance as a result of a shared learning process. This improvement will be materialised through the development of regional mobility strategies with an holistic approach (environmental, economic & social factors). https://www.interregeurope.eu/regio-mob

 

[3] Local4Green project runs from 1 November 2016 to 30 April 2020 under MED Programme. It is an innovative project that supports local authorities-municipalities to define and implement innovative local fiscal policies in order to promote renewable energy sources (RES), in the public and private sector and households. https://www.local4green.interreg-med.eu

 

[4] The outcomes of the stakeholder meeting are used to create complex, dynamic, highly quantitative models which will be discussed with government institutions in order to develop an Action Plan for the Lazio Region that will be illustrated in a next article.

New guidance for EU-funded projects

“Helping Member States organise sound tender procedures for EU investments is key to safeguard the EU budget from errors and ensure the maximum impact of each euro the EU spends, for the direct benefit of citizens,” said Commissioner for Regional policy Corina Creţu.

The Commission published new guidance to help national, regional and local public officials dealing with EU funds ensure efficient and transparent public procurement procedures for EU-funded projects.  The guidance, soon available in all languages, covers the process from A to Z, from the preparation and publication of the calls to the selection and evaluation of bids and the contract implementation. As such, it can also be useful outside the scope of EU funds. At each step, the guidance includes tips to avoid mistakes, good practices and useful links and templates. It also explains how to make the most out of the opportunities offered by the revised public procurement directives of 2014, i.e. less red tape and more online procedures to make it easier for small businesses to participate in public tenders and the possibility of introducing new criteria in award decision to choose socially responsible companies and innovative, environment-friendly products. The European Structural and Investment (ESI) Funds channel over €450 billion into the EU real economy over the 2014-2020 funding period, half of which is invested through public procurement. An infographic on the guidance and more information on what the Commission does to help Member States improve the way they manage and invest EU funds are available online.

Challenge of air quality in Lazio Region

 

Anci Lazio is part of an innovative cooperation project  in the field of renewable energies and urban electric mobility: EV Energy, under Interreg Europe Programme

The Challenge of Air Quality in Italian Cities is the report presented on the last September 29th to the Italian Senate by the Sustainable Development Foundation, a think tank, chaired by the former Minister Mr Edo Ronchi,  in collaboration with Enea, the National Agency for Technology and Energy, and the State Railways Partnership. The Report reveals that approximately 91,000 premature deaths occur annually in Italy for atmospheric pollution, against 86,000 in Germany, 54,000 in France, 50,000 in the United Kingdom, and 30,000 in Spain. These 91,000 deaths in Italy include 66,630 deaths for PM2,5 thin dusts, 21,040 for nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and 3,380 for ozone (O3).

The report proposes ten measures to reduce pollution, starting from the need for a national air quality strategy. The criticality identified by the report is the management of antismog policies which are now entrusted to municipalities, but they can only intervene on 40% of sources of pollution. Therefore, there is a need for a National environmental governance to help local authorities ensure that air quality policies are radically aimed at reducing all pollutants.

Among the points of such Decalogue, there is the reduction in the number of private cars, new investments in urban public transport as well as the increase of electric vehicles. These are key points for the air quality policies to be adopted in the Lazio region and the city of Rome.

In fact, in addition to an old, slow and expensive public transport network, Rome’s mobility is almost entirely based on private cars: its motorization rate is 978 vehicles per 1.000 inhabitants, with a death rate for road accidents up to 7 out of 100,000 people.

This is why Anci Lazio, the association of 378 municipalities in the Lazio region, Rome Municipality included, has enthusiastically joined the EV Energy project proposed by the Green IT Amsterdam Region, as lead partner,  together with the Barcelona Official Chamber of Commerce, the Kaunas University of Technology , the Province of Flevoland and the Stockholm County Council, Growth and regional planning administration.

Under the Interreg Europe Programme, the project  paves the way for a future decarbonisation of the energy and mobility sector: it aims to analyse, initiate and implement policies favouring sustainable energy and electric mobility systems in urban areas. It works with experienced cities and regions, transferring the most appropriate policies and drivers. The project focuses on three thematic areas: Renewable energies, Electric mobility, Infrastructures (Smart grids, ICT, etc.).

Electrical cars would of course pollute far less than fossil fuel-driven ones; the air in cities would once more be breathable and their streets as quiet as those of Venice.

In fact, the end of the age of the internal combustion engine is in sight. There are small signs everywhere and even in Rome: the shift to electric vehicles is already under way, among courageous enterprises such as Share’ngo, GLS Italy and UMPI.

SHARE’NGO is a new electric micro car sharing service of the City of Rome, invented in Tuscany, produced in China (produced by Xindayang of Geely Motor Group Co., the Equomobili are designed in Italy and in CS GROUP). Mr Enrico Tagliaferri, Chief of the Sharon’Go in Rome, says that the reaction of Rome’s citizens was very positive, so as to encourage Share’ngo investments, by increasing the fleet to 600 cars and expanding the operational area to the green belt of Rome. Sharengo is also proposing and supporting the “condominium car sharing”, an EV sharing service deployed on a condominium basis. It brings to the extreme the heighborhood operation model narrowing the sharing base to the condominium. This way citizens can book and pick up the EV inside their own condominium and use them for two-way trips.

GLS Italy has an ecological branch in the San Lorenzo neighbourhood in Rome: a strategic point in the inner city of Rome. It is the initiative of the GLS express delivery, to deliver goods in Rome through EVs at 100%. The EVs autonomy of 130 km is sufficient for the entire working day for the distribution of goods in Rome. Therefore, GLS is progressively replacing its methane vehicles with electric ones.  At San Lorenzo, GLS has E-Stations to recharge its fleet and EVs of its customers and visitors. GLS was recently involved also in the Pro-E-Bike project for delivery.

The use of electric vehicles (EVs), and with it the development of a sustainable urban mobility planning, is logically dependent on a functioning and well-structured network of charging points. For this purpose, charging poles need to be installed all around the city, very soon. For this, there are very active enterprises like UMPI, an Italian company leader in the production of powerline smart systems: ACS (Active Charging System). It is a complete and highly innovative platform enabling swift and easy provision throughout urban and extra-urban areas of a series of recharging points for EVs. By using existing electrical networks for public  lighting, this system allows the installation of recharging stations in strategic areas of the city as well as their remote  management and monitoring.

All this proves that the private sector in Rome is ready to the innovation and the transition towards a more sustainable mobility system.

However, the quest for more and better public sector innovation in Rome and Lazio is hampered by several barriers, which fall into major categories such as unfavorable framework conditions; lack of innovation leadership at all levels; limited knowledge and application of innovation processes and methods.

In order to overcome these barriers, the EV Energy project is very pro-active in engaging public authorities and creating new synergies between public and private sectors to innovate and to drive concrete change processes.

Claudio Bordi, European project expert

EV Energy project, 2nd Regional Stakeholder Meeting

The 2nd Regional Stakeholder Meeting conference of EV Energy project held in Rome the 19th October, 2017.

The European Commission intends to promote the implementation of an integrated European eco-system for batteries, in order to support electromobility and energy storage, by addressing the issue of scarce resources and battery recycling, which will encourage the emergence of new models of circular economy for the automotive industry (Europe on the Move, An agenda for a socially fair transition towards clean, competitive and connected mobility for all, May 31st, 2017, Communication from the EC to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Comittee of the Regions).

Mr Sergio Marchionne, CEO of Fiat Chrysler Automobiles, recently declared as follows: “before thinking that electric vehicles are the solution, we must consider all the life cycle of these vehicles, since when energy is produced from fossil fuels, the emissions of an electric car are equivalent to those of any other type of fuel car” (source: Sole 24 ore magazine, imprese e territori, October 2nd, 2017).

Considering how much air pollution in our cities is so worryingly increasing, precisely because of the emissions of cars, EV Energy project starts from the assumption that the electric car must become the integral replacement of the combustion car, ensuring the advent of Electric Vehicles for City Renewable Energy Supply.

In fact, there are European projects that are perfectly in line with the aforementioned new policies of the European Commission, and strongly believe in technologies in favor of electric mobility, analysing and developing innovative local policies that jointly promote renewable energies, electric mobility and the use of ICT for their integration.

EV Energy is one of these projects, funded under the European Commission’s programme for interregional cooperation Interreg Europe. This project aims to pave the way for a transition from fossil driven energy towards fair priced, decarbonised, clean and integrated resources and mobility systems in urban areas. The project’s total budget is € 1,049,797,00 out of which the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) co-finances 85%.

Through interregional policy learning, the most appropriate policies are transferred to cities, regions and partner countries and implemented subsequently. Identified best practices and policies are further disseminated for the benefit of the widest possible audience. EV Energy project gathers 5 different European regions in its consortium. Partners come from Amsterdam, Barcelona, Kaunas, Rome and Stockholm. Green IT Amsterdam has taken up the role of the coordinating partner.

A lot of questions were addressed by the EV Energy partners  to the audience composed of experts and key stakeholders of Lazio region, during the 2nd Regional Stakeholder Meeting conference that took place in Rome last 19 of October 2017, hosted by EUR S.p.A partner in its facilities, with the support of the other Italian partner, Anci Lazio, the Association of 378 municipalities of the Lazio region.

Such questions were, for example, How can EU regions develop innovative solutions and policies surrounding electric mobility and thereby ensure to be drivers of green growth?

 What role can flexible public-private partnerships involving SMEs, energy providers, suppliers, retailers and public bodies play?

Experts and key stakeholders of Lazio region attending the 2nd Regional Stakeholder Meeting conference of EV Energy included representatives of ENEL S.p.A., GLS Italy, the Mobility Service Agency of the City of Rome (Roma Servizi per la Mobilità), Share’ngo and UMPI.

This second conference took place in a city that has witnessed the recurrence of air pollution, these days, due to the lack of rain for weeks. October in Rome can be so pleasant weather-wise, with the likelihood of sunny days and warm temperatures, that the Romans have a name for it: ottobrata romana.  However, the increasing air pollution due to the traffic congestion in Rome is so much alarming.

Fortunately, the key stakeholders of Rome and Lazio region attending the  EV Energy 2nd conference are brave entrepreneurs who figured out what is the way to go for the future. It is extremely praiseworthy that such small and medium-sized entrepreneurs are increasingly adopting services by using electric cars. Thanks to their courageous vision, new business models are emerging and giving rise to innovative mobility services, including new on-line platforms for freight operations, car or scooter/bike sharing services, etc.

The response of Roma Servizi per la Mobilità was that the Municipal agency of Rome is installing soon EV charging points in several sites of the metropolitan area of Rome.

What emerged from the  EV Energy 2nd conference is, therefore, that the City of Rome and the Lazio region must accelerate the transition towards zero-emission mobility. This is why the region urgently needs a fruitful  collaboration between the public and private sectors as one of the key elements to enhance smart policies when it comes to EVs, IT infrastructure and renewable energy.

Claudio Bordi, European projects Expert

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